What can I do in order to use different certificates/signing profiles in a central build and a local build?

Without any plugin configuration the Xcode build will use the code sign identity that is defined in the Xcode configuration. However, this can be overridden by using the property xcode.codeSignIdentity or the plugin parameter codeSignIdentity.

Additionally you can append a suffix to the appId by using the property xcode.addIdSuffix if the central build uses a different Apple account.

You could could adapt your settings.xml file on the central build server by adding the following properties:

<settings xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/SETTINGS/1.0.0"

        <xcode.codeSignIdentity>iPhone Distribution</xcode.codeSignIdentity>